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Your dentist: Anesthesia

For most people, especially children, going to the dentist represents a trauma and an unpleasant experience, because it is associated with the pain. That was the main problem in dental practice in the 1990s (and earlier), and as a result, many generations were ruined when it came to the dental condition. That is why now it takes time to restore the trust of patients in order to take greater care of their teeth! The most important is that parents don’t pass on their fears to their children and that they develop awareness of the importance of healthy mouths and teeth, as well as that visits to the dentist nowadays are completely painless!

Painlessness of dental interventions is achieved by applying local anesthetics.

Today, a modern dental practice is inconceivable without the use of local anesthesia.

With the development of dentistry, dental products and anesthetics, each patient can receive anesthesia. This includes children, pregnant women, elderly people, chronically ill and highly risk patients.

Types of local anesthesia

Local anesthesia is divided into superficial and infiltration (injection). Surface anesthesia is divided into anesthesia achieved by coating or spraying, while infiltration into terminal (plexus) and conduction (block anesthesia).

Superficial anesthesia, as its name suggests, acts on a limited part of the skin or mucous membranes, depending on where the anesthetic is applied. It reduces or eliminates pain for a short time, 2-3 minutes. Surface anesthesia is applied in the form of a solution, spray or gel.

Infiltrative anesthesia is achieved by injecting an anesthetic solution into the tissue.

It can be:

Allergic reactions to local anesthetics are very rare now, but it is still important for your dentist to consider them.
The number of injections per treatment is not unlimited. It is usually between two and five for adults of average weight.
It is recommended that you eat a light meal or snack before going to the dentist, who will probably use local anesthesia during the treatment, in order to limit the accelerated pulse after the application.

Your dentist: Impacted teeth

Impacted teeth are teeth that have not came out in the jaw, and their usual time of growth has passed. Also, they do not show clinical and radiographic signs of growth. There are several reasons that lead to this phenomenon, and one of the most common is that their germination path is blocked by some obstacle.

Other reasons may be:

Impacted teeth can be partially grown (semi-impacted), completely covered with bone and soft tissues (fully impacted) and malponified (irregular position in relation to their growth).

Every tooth can be impacted and this is most often the case with wisdom teeth and canines.

Often, patients are not even aware of the existence of a non-erupted tooth, since they do not cause any disturbances (in a large number of cases). Therefore, it is necessary to perform control examinations with panoramic images of both jaws after the eighth year of life. Then we observe whether all permanent teeth are present, whether there are too many teeth and whether there are any processes in the bone that can block the growth of permanent teeth.

Therapy of missing teeth can be directed towards their preservation and support of their growth or towards tooth extraction.

In the case of an impacted canine, after establishing the diagnosis, the therapeutic procedure is provided with space for its eruption by extracting the first tooth to it backwards (the first permanent premolar). If the canine has already endangered the second incisor by its outgrowth, the space for the canine is obtained by removing that incisor.

The cause of canine impaction can also be a persistent deciduous tooth, which did not disintegrate and fell out in time, so it should be removed. It is not such a rare occurrence and an overabundance of teeth that interfere with the canines, and sometimes it is necessary to surgically remove pathological processes in the bone that interfere.

When the tooth wont came out spontaneously, the problem is solved in cooperation with an orthodontist and a surgeon. Most often, the orthodontist places a fixed device to make the place where the canine will come, or, if a baby tooth is present, it is left until the moment when it starts the extraction therapy. Once the tooth eruption site is secured, the oral surgeon releases the tooth from the bone and thus allows access to the orthodontist who will glue the bracket to the tooth and lower the tooth with wire traction and bring it to the correct place in the dental arch.

You can read about the problem of impacted wisdom teeth in earlier texts.

Your dentist: Periapical lesions (“processes”) on teeth

Periapical lesions are inflammatory changes localized in the area of the tip of the tooth root, ie in the bone surrounding the tooth. The most common periapical lesions are periapical cysts and granulomas. The cause of their occurrence is in most cases an infection of the dental pulp that occurs as a consequence of unrecovered caries. Tooth trauma can also cause cysts at the top of the roots.

These changes are mostly asymptomatic and have a chronic course from the very beginning. This is the so-called "Peaceful phase", in which the following can indicate their existence:

At a certain moment, when the periapical changes reach the appropriate size, or the number and virulence of the microorganism overcomes the body's defenses, the process becomes acute, which is accompanied by:

Treatment of periapical lesions includes:

FIRST AID - which aims to relieve pain and prevent the spread of swelling, it can be:

Patients who have swollen teeth are prescribed antibiotics and cold compresses on the outside are recommended.

After the acute symptoms have subsided, the final treatment of the tooth with a periapical lesion is started. It can also be conservative and surgical.

  1. Conservative treatment - The root canal is mechanically treated, rinsed with disinfectants and then obstructed (filled)
  2. Surgical treatment - this type of treatment is needed when there is no possibility of conservative treatment (periapical lesions with pronounced resorption of bone and / or tooth root).

The surgical procedure includes resection of the tooth root (apicotomy), which involves the removal of the infected root tip with simultaneous curettage (cleaning) of the pathological process from the bone. For successful resection of the root of the tooth, it is necessary to mechanically and chemically prepare the root canal, ie surgical intervention should be performed only after the canal has been processed and its definitive obturation (filling).

Your dentist: Wisdom teeth

The third molar, also known as the wisdom tooth, is the eighth and last tooth that grows in the jaw, most often between 18 and 25 years of age.

The main problems related to wisdom teeth are the impossibility of their complete emergence, ie. Impaction or semi-impaction of these teeth.

An impacted tooth is a tooth that has not erupted because its normal eruption path is obstructed or blocked by an obstacle.

A semi-impacted tooth is a tooth that is partially visible in the oral cavity and partially covered with soft tissue.

The reasons for impactions are not fully elucidated and can be numerous, the most common being:

Detection of impacted teeth is performed with the help of anamnesis, clinical examination and X-rays. It is usually recommended to make an orthopantomographic image, because it gives the possibility to see all the teeth from both jaws on one image.

It is very important to perform regular check-ups of such wisdom teeth, because they can lead to numerous complications. Some of them are:

The therapy of impacted and semi-impacted teeth is based on surgical extraction. It involves freeing the tooth from the bone, removing it and suturing the wound. After removal, patients are prescribed antibiotics to prevent infection as well as anti-edema preparations. It is also advisable to take analgesics, if necessary.


Your dentist: Dental implants

A dental implant is a factory or laboratory construction that is surgically implanted in the jawbone, and serves as a replacement for a lost tooth and the basis for future dental replacement.

The installation of dental implants avoids grinding of adjacent teeth (necessary when making bridges) and thus the use of this modern method of compensating for lost teeth is physiologically and functionally justified. With terminal edentulousness, it is the only option for obtaining fixed compensation.

It should be noted that there are certain contraindications for implant placement. They can be general medical and dental.

General medical contraindications:

Dental contraindications:

A dental implant usually solves the problem of lack of one tooth, but there is a possibility of solving much more difficult conditions in terms of the lack of a larger number of teeth on one or both sides of the edentulous ridge as well as the state of total edentulousness.

After implantation, the implant will play a role as a carrier of future prosthetic work. Depending on the type of edentulousness, there are different prosthetic works on implants.

In case of total edentulousness they can be:

If the patient has his own teeth in his mouth, there is a possibility of making a mixed-wearing restoration (on implants and teeth).

The intervention of implant placement is performed according to a certain protocol, which guarantees the preservation of the bone in which it is implanted as well as the surrounding tissues. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and is absolutely painless.

Just as your natural teeth require good oral hygiene and regular check-ups at the dentist, dental implants require the same or higher level of care and maintenance, so regular brushing of teeth (implants) and the use of WATERPIKA is a condition that cannot be done without.

After the treatment, you will be scheduled for periodic check-ups at the dentist, where the health of the restored teeth and gums will be monitored, in order to eliminate any possible side effects.


Your dentist: Crowns and bridges

Making fixed restorations (crowns and bridges) is justified in cases when the crown of a natural tooth is very damaged (due to caries or fracture) and it is not possible to repair it conservatively, in the absence of one or more teeth, or for aesthetic reasons.

Crowns and bridges can be metal-ceramic or non-metal-ceramic restorations. They are made on the basis of the taken individual impression of the ground teeth in the dental laboratory, after which they are temporarily cemented and then the patient is given the opportunity to request possible corrections (change of color, shape, size). After a certain period of adaptation, the crowns are definitely cemented.

The process of making crowns involves:

A bridge is a compensation consisting of several connected crowns (two or more). It is the choice in cases when one or several teeth are missing, whereby the toothless space on both sides is limited by natural teeth that will be used as bridge supports. Bridge supports can be natural teeth or dental implants. The preparation of the teeth for receiving the bridge is similar to the preparation of the teeth for individual crowns.

Advantages of bridges over prostheses:


Your dentist: Periodontitis

After caries, periodontitis is the most common disease. As many as 90% of the population has some form of periodontitis. It starts gradually almost imperceptibly, most often without discomfort and pain. It can last for years and even decades, and it is characterized by the progressive decay of all the structures that hold the tooth in the bone.

Periodontitis is caused by dental plaque, 80% of which are microorganisms, ie bacteria, but many other factors are also responsible for its formation, such as: solid dental plaque (tartar and concretions), inadequately made fillings and prosthetic restorations, traumatic contacts, caries, food debris , irregularity of the structure of supporting tissues ... Some general diseases (diabetes) as well as genetic predisposition are also significant.

Periodontitis is manifested by bleeding and inflammation of the gums, the presence of tartar and concretions, bad breath, the presence of periodontal pockets, withdrawn gums and bare necks and tooth roots, tooth displacement, and in the final stage, clenching and tooth loss.

The treatment of periodontitis is complex and long-lasting. Success depends on the patient's motivation and his willingness to cooperate. The precondition for successful treatment is the establishment of adequate oral hygiene, which sometimes means a drastic change in the patient's hygiene habits (the technique of brushing teeth, the use of floss and mouthwash). The importance of oral hygiene is huge because it eliminates the main causative factor, which is dental plaque. Without adequate oral hygiene, there is no successful treatment for periodontitis!

Depending on the stage, we approach this disease in several ways: conservatively, surgically, prosthetically or in combination.

In the initial phase, this means removing solid dental plaque and dental plaque with an ultrasonic device, and then polishing the teeth with brushes and erasers with abrasive pastes. Then (if necessary) replacement of inappropriate fillings, prosthetic works, curettage of periodontal pockets, showering, use of antibiotics are performed, and in an advanced phase, surgical intervention is started.

Surgical intervention achieves good access to the periodontal pocket, in order to enable complete removal of pathologically altered tissue. In cases of severe bone destruction, we compensate for the defects with artificial bone in the form of granules.


Your dentist: Orthodontics

Orthodontics is a part of dentistry that deals with correcting disorders of growth and position of teeth, function and aesthetics of teeth, jaws and face.

Orthodontic treatment can be performed:

Most disorders are developed by the age of 7, so this is the best period for orthodontic examination.

Early detection and initiation of therapy enables the guidance of germination at the most favorable moment, in the most favorable position; preservation of the place for eruption of permanent teeth and the possibility of extracting deciduous teeth for therapeutic purposes. Also, early treatment can shorten the therapy time and make the treatment easier.

The goal of orthodontic therapy is to achieve a correct and aesthetic appearance of the bite, which will enable the optimal function of chewing and redistribution of forces so that the child receives an equal load on all teeth. Proper tooth positioning facilitates oral hygiene and reduces the risk of caries and periodontal disease.

Therapy can be performed with mobile devices, fixed devices or a combination of both types of devices.

Fixed orthodontic therapy is performed with braces that are glued to the teeth (metal, ceramic, sapphire) and can only be removed by an orthodontist. The length of the therapy depends on the severity of the anomaly, but also on the cooperation between the patient and the orthodontist, which contributes to the shortening of the therapy and enables optimal success.

Mobile therapy allows the patient to remove and place the orthodontic appliance himself and is performed on children. Mobile therapy can also be used in adult patients using Inmann devices or transparent foils to correct mild irregularities in the position of the teeth.


Your dentist: The first permanent teeth

It is very important that parents know the time of eruption of the first permanent teeth, so that they are not neglected. However, this happens very often and as a consequence, caries of those teeth occurs in the earliest period.

The eruption time of individual permanent teeth is subject to various individual variations. Between the ages of six and seven, the first permanent molars, or as they are commonly called SIXES, appear. Then follows the change of incisors around 6-9 years, first lower and then upper, first and second incisors (units and doubles). From 10.-12. premolars (fours and fives) also emerge in the year, canines (triplets) change in the same period, although they may be a little late behind premolars. Other molars (weeks) sprout from 11.-13. year, and the third molars (wisdom teeth) from 17-21. year, although their eruption can often be difficult and therefore may occur later.

We will now return to the period from 6-7. years, when due to the eruption of the first permanent teeth, frequent check-ups at the dentist are necessary.

In order to prevent the appearance of caries on the mentioned teeth, the procedure of FILLING FISSURES AND PITS is performed.

This preventive measure is best after the teeth erupt, or no later than 6 months after that. During this period, the mentioned tooth is usually completely healthy. Fissure sealing is a completely painless intervention, which lasts only a few minutes.

Although we filled the fissures of our SIX, they are protected only from the biting (upper) surface, so the proper technique of brushing teeth is important for further maintenance of dental hygiene. Children in this period begin to master this technique on their own, but they still need to do it under parental control.

Tooth brushing technique

The brush is placed on the outside of the tooth, horizontally in relation to one side of the upper jaw, at an angle of 45 ° to the axis of the tooth. With light movements, the brush rotates downwards.

One such series should cover 2 to 3 teeth and the movements should be repeated at least 8 times. Move the brush towards the opposite side of the jaw and thus clean the outer sides of all upper teeth.

The brush should then be placed on the teeth of the opposite lower jaw and with the same movements (with the difference that they are now moving upwards) the outer sides of the lower teeth are cleaned.

After cleaning the outside, place the brush on the inside and clean those surfaces with the same movements (turning down for the upper teeth and up for the lower teeth).

Finally, the biting surfaces of all teeth should be cleaned. This is accomplished by backward movements. At this stage, the upper side of the tongue should also be washed.

The most common mistakes that can be made when brushing your teeth are brush movements back and forth and movements up and down. In the first case, the dental plaque that is on the surface of the tooth will not be removed from the tooth, but will be compressed between the teeth. In the second case, the plaque (which is full of bacteria) accumulates in the gingiva and leads to its damage.

While brushing your teeth, there is no contact between your teeth! It is advisable to look in the mirror in order to control the technique you use when brushing your teeth. When you have finished brushing, rinse your mouth well.

Teeth should be brushed at least twice a day, morning and evening, with no time limit.

That is, for as long as it takes someone to remove soft deposits from all tooth surfaces.

Your dentist: Better safe than sorry

In my first text, I would like to address the youngest and their parents. Since I encounter a very bad teeth condition (primarily children) every day in the office, I will present some basic principles of prevention in order to help parents maintain the oral and dental hygiene of their children. So, if you have a baby, we start with maintaining the hygiene of the oral cavity (later also the teeth).

In newborns and infants, sterile gauze (soaked in lukewarm unsweetened chamomile) should be used before teething - it is wrapped around the finger and wiped the oral cavity after a meal or at least a couple times a day. It is also important to mention the hygiene of the pacifier, which should look like this: the pacifier is always cleaned first with a jet of running water, and then by immersing it in boiling water for 10 minutes.

Let's move on to the baby’s first tooth.

For a start, it is enough to wipe baby’s tooth in the morning - after waking up and in the evening - before going to bed with a cotton swab soaked in lukewarm boiled water or unsweetened chamomile.

When more deciduous teeth appear, then you can start using a toothbrush, but without toothpaste - lukewarm water is enough. During this period, brush will serve them more as a toy, but that is actually good because they will get used to it over time and will not reject it later, which happens very often.

As for the teeth brushing technique, at this stage, teeth are brushed from all sides and according to the principle "how it rains, and how the grass grows". Also very important - children should brush their teeth as much as they can, and the parent should finish it properly!

At the very end, I will mention nutrition.

I won't talk much about a healthy diet, we all know that, but I will ask you to avoid using bottles of juices during the night as much as possible. I know that it is not easy to calm the baby in that period, but try to understand what consequences it can cause in the later period. And that's why we like to say, "Better safe than sorry."

Your dentist: Injuries of deciduous and permanent teeth in children

This phenomenon is often present at all ages of children, especially in the period of their intensive physical and mental development. Certain age groups can be considered at risk for injuries, from the second to the fourth year for deciduous teeth and from the seventh to the tenth year for permanent teeth.

Other PRISPONDING FACTORS, which greatly contribute to the occurrence of dental injury are:

The outcome of the treatment of injured teeth depends on the degree of injury of both dental and bone tissue, as well as the time elapsed from the moment of injury to the dentist (it is very important that this time is as short as possible). That is why a patient with an injury is considered an EMERGENCY!

There are various classifications of deciduous and permanent tooth injuries:

Hard tooth tissue injuries are manifested as:

  1. Enamel burst
  2. Tooth fractures
    1. Class I - enamel fracture
    2. Class II - fracture of enamel and dentin
    3. Class III - enamel and dentin fracture with pulp injury
    4. Class IV - root fractures

In cases of class I and II fractures, the therapy involves upgrading the crown with aesthetic materials in the first dental intervention.

In severe cases of class III and IV, the outcome of therapy depends on the degree of resorption (in dairy), ie the degree of root development (in permanent teeth), ie. whether the tooth is with incomplete or completed root development, from the width of the pulp opening as well as from the elapsed time from the moment of injury to the arrival at the dental office.

Injuries of the periodontal-supporting tissues of the teeth are manifested as:

  1. Tooth dislocations
    1. Concussion-contusion of the tooth
    2. Subluxation-tooth decay
    3. Extrusion-partial extrusion of teeth from the bone cup (alveoli)
    4. Intrusion - partial or complete impression of the tooth into the bone cup
    5. Lateral-lateral luxation of the tooth
  2. Traumatic tooth eruption

The most serious complication of dental injuries is traumatic tooth eruption, and it is very important for the patient (parent) to know how to act in a given case until he arrives at the dental office.

If the patient brings a broken tooth to the office, REPLANTATION should be done, ie. it is necessary to return it again to the alveoli. The success of the care largely depends on the time elapsed from the moment of the injury to the replantation, the damage to the bone cup and the way of bringing the erupted tooth to the office is of great importance. It is best to deliver it in a solution of table salt (2 dl of water and 1 teaspoon of salt), lukewarm water or milk.

The worst mode of transport is in a clean and dry handkerchief. If the erupted tooth is destroyed by caries, with diseased pulp or there is an orthodontic anomaly, replantation is not performed. Milk tooth replantation is contraindicated.

If the erupted tooth is lost, it is necessary to consult an orthodontist, who can suggest orthodontic movement of adjacent teeth towards the empty space.

In case orthodontic treatment is not indicated, the child is compensated for the erupted tooth by making a temporary partial denture, until the conditions for definitive surgical and prosthetic care are obtained, ie implantation in the jaw bone tissue on which an aesthetic metal-free ceramic crown is then placed.


Your dentist: Root canal treatment - "nerve extraction"

The branch of dentistry that deals with the treatment of tooth root canals is called ENDODONTICS. This intervention is popularly known as "nerve extraction" and is synonymous with something very painful and uncomfortable, because it is preceded by a very strong pain of a particular tooth that patients describe. However, in the age of modern dentistry, it is no longer a painful procedure, because it is performed under local anesthesia and the patient's experience is similar to dental fillings.

Traumatic tooth injuries can also lead to interruptions in the supply of nutrients to the dental pulp, which contributes to the death of the dental nerve. In such cases, many symptoms are absent, the process remains hidden and there are complications-gangrene, periapical processes, cysts.

Endodontic therapy involves the treatment of the inside of the tooth, ie the part in which the dental pulp is located, ie the "dental nerve". The goal of endodontic therapy is to achieve a condition in which the tissues surrounding the root of the tooth will remain healthy despite the fact that the "dental nerve" has undergone degenerative changes, as well as that the tissues are not exposed to bacterial infection from the hollow space where the dental nerve used to be.

In short, the treatment of root canals involves mechanical cleaning and rinsing of bacteria, decomposed organic ingredients and bacterial toxins that remain after the decay of the "dental nerve". After cleaning and rinsing the root canal, it is filled with special pastes and stakes so that the space inside the tooth remains hermetically sealed. In that way, the possibility of re-settlement of bacteria inside the tooth and re-occurrence of the inflammatory reaction with all its consequences is eliminated.

The therapy can be performed in one session, most often with single-rooted teeth (incisors, canines, lower premolars), or multi-session with the placement of a serum that numbs the nerve, and after ten days it is removed and the canal therapy is completed.

Patients often decide to remove any tooth that hurts, without thinking about the consequences of such a decision (both functionally and aesthetically and materially), but this attitude is very wrong because no denture, bridge or implant can be measured with a well-healed tooth root!!!


Your dentist: Toothbrushes selection

In addition to the correct teeth brushing technique, which we have perfected, the next important item is the correct choice of toothbrush.

We will first analyze the size of the brush head - the working part. For most adults, it is desirable that it be smaller (about 1 cm wide and about 2.5 cm long), which facilitates the manipulation of the brush in the mouth, easier cleaning of the last teeth in a row, and generally makes brushing more efficient in removing soft deposits and food debris.

When it comes to the type of handle (non-slip handle or flexible neck), head shape (rounded or rectangular) and the arrangement of fiber bundles (wavy or straight), choose the one that suits you best. The best toothbrush is the one that fits your mouth and allows you to easily reach all your teeth.

When it comes to brush sharpness, there are three types: soft, medium and hard (soft, medium and hard).

The soft brush is most often used for children, the elderly, then people who wear dentures and other dental aids or have gum problems (bleeding gums, periodontitis). This type of brush, however, does not give the desired results to people with a normal condition of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and teeth.

Medium brushes are most commonly used. They are good for people of all ages whose teeth and gums are in good condition. The hairs have a certain degree of flexibility and provide efficient brushing of all areas of the mouth and teeth.

Hard toothbrushes are good for large, firm teeth and healthy gums. This brush is intended for those who require stronger brushing. When using this type of toothbrush, it is important not to overdo it when brushing, as it can damage tooth enamel or irritate the gums.

You should also know that the toothbrush needs to be changed as soon as you notice that the bundles of fibers have lost their original shape, usually every two or three months.

Your dentist: Teeth in pregnancy

Among many pregnant women, there is a great misconception that teeth decay more often during pregnancy due to the baby consuming more calcium from the mother's body! However, the real reason can be found in hormonal changes, which are an integral part of the "other condition", as well as poor hygiene.


The biggest problem for pregnant women is gums. Changes in hormone levels can lead to swelling of the gums, bleeding when brushing teeth due to increased sensitivity, but diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis can also occur.

Gingivitis occurs due to the retention of food between the teeth and gums after a meal, which attracts bacteria, and they cause inflammation, redness, swelling, bleeding. If left untreated, gingivitis can lead to periodontitis.

Therefore, enhanced oral and dental hygiene is required during this period, as well as regular check-ups at the dentist.

Both morning sickness and vomiting can cause greater damage to tooth enamel due to increased acidity from gastric juice. If you have such problems, it is important to know that the mouth should be rinsed first, and the teeth should be brushed only after an hour.

Most pregnant women need more frequent meals, snacking, especially sweets. All this also contributes to the appearance of dental caries. So it would be best to brush your teeth after each intake of sugar!

If there are problems of any kind, gingivitis, periodontitis, caries, pain, swelling, etc. you should contact your dentist immediately, because there are no contraindications for such interventions in pregnancy.

You should visit the dentist at least once during pregnancy, and two dental examinations are recommended. Every time you visit the dentist, you should emphasize that you are pregnant! This is important for several reasons: so that your dentist knows in which trimester of pregnancy you are, what the course of the pregnancy is, whether you are maintaining the pregnancy ... which intervention is the most desirable at a given moment, etc.

The biggest concern of pregnant women who have dental infections is whether they are allowed to receive local anesthesia, X-rays of the tooth, take antibiotics ....

Local anesthesia is indicated for dental interventions, in order to reduce the patient's pain during work. Pain is thought to have a greater impact on the occurrence of stresses in pregnant women. So that pregnant women can receive anesthesia, for interventions that require it, unless the pregnancy is risky (maintained), in which case a gynecologist who manages the pregnancy should be consulted.

Although minimal doses of radiation are required for dental purposes, it is still advisable to avoid exposure to X-rays during pregnancy, especially in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. If recording is necessary, you should perform it on the correct device, applying all protection measures to you and the fetus.

If it is necessary to include an antibiotic in the further course of treatment, then a consultation with a gynecologist is mandatory. Any medication should usually be avoided during the first three months of pregnancy. Usually, pregnant women should avoid any medications during the first three months of pregnancy.

The best way to avoid dental problems during pregnancy is to maintain your teeth regularly before pregnancy. If you are planning a pregnancy, we advise you to include a visit to the dentist in your plans, in order to eliminate the existing problems and get tips that can save your teeth. During pregnancy, maintain dental hygiene, follow the advice of the dentist, check your teeth regularly and be sure to contact the dentist if you feel gum problems. Take care of your diet, avoid sweets, get plenty of calcium and vitamin D, use a softer brush to reduce gum irritation, and change the brush regularly to avoid bacteria buildup. Proper care and quick response can eliminate many unwanted consequences.

Your dentist: Tooth hypersensitivity

Tooth sensitivity is a very common phenomenon that can be caused by various irritants: hot, cold, sweet or sour.

Excessive tooth sensitivity can be caused by:

People with sensitive teeth may have a feeling of mild discomfort when consuming cold drinks, chocolate, sweets, ice cream, etc. However, that feeling can turn into extremely strong, sharp and stabbing pain that occurs at the slightest irritation. In order for the resulting symptoms not to obscure the clinical picture of more serious dental diseases, a visit to the dentist must be mandatory in order to determine adequate therapy.


In milder forms of hypersensitivity, it is enough to train the patient on the correct technique of brushing teeth and recommend the type of toothbrush and toothpaste he should use (special toothpastes to reduce tooth sensitivity). It is advisable to avoid acidic foods and daily use of pastes with abrasive properties. The use of a hard toothbrush should be avoided.

In the further course of therapy, the sensitive surfaces of the teeth are coated with desensitizing preparations or by filling with composite materials if the sensitive surface of the teeth is large. In the case of better equipped dental offices, low-energy laser therapy can also be applied, which is short-lived, painless, can be applied to any patient, does not stain teeth and has no harmful effects.

For home use, you can get a gel based concentrated of sodium fluoride, sodium nitrate or strontium chloride. These compounds will block the transmission of stimuli through the dentinal canals of the teeth to the nerve of the dental pulp. Also, they prevent further retraction of the gums and enable its regeneration. Special gels based on hyaluronic acid are recommended to rub (usually with a finger) after teeth brushing.

Your dentist: Bad breath

Although it sounds harmless, bad breath (halitosis, fetor ex ore) has many factors that cause it. Some of them are: food, smoking, dental caries, gum disease, sinus and respiratory diseases, some general diseases, inadequate oral hygiene, use of certain medications.

Bad breath is a problem for a large number of people, the third most common reason being a visit to the dentist, but again a topic that is not talked about enough.

In the following text, we will deal with this problem and its cause, which originates from the oral cavity. But you should know that if your dentist and the implementation of appropriate therapy did not give the desired results, it is necessary to ask for examinations by specialists in other branches of medicine - gastroenterologists or otorhinolaryngologists.

Let's start with the diet. It is known that certain types of food (such as garlic and onions, radishes ...) lead to the appearance of unpleasant odor, despite adequate oral hygiene, but it is transient. The reason for this is that the smell of food is mostly eliminated from the body through the lungs, so it is present with every exhalation.

With inadequate oral hygiene, bad breath occurs due to the retention of food residues on the surface of the tongue, between the teeth, below the gum line, in hard-to-reach places, which is a fertile ground for the development of bacteria. Bacteria then break down these food residues, releasing unpleasant-smelling substances. Gum disease, periodontitis cause constant bad breath or bad taste in the mouth. The cause is the formation of plaque, a sticky colorless substance full of bacteria.

Therefore, adequate oral hygiene, as well as regular dental examinations can detect and stop further progression of the disease and thus eliminate bad breath.

Bad breath can also occur due to dry mouth - xerostomia, which occurs due to insufficient amount of saliva. Saliva is necessary to "wash" the mouth and remove substances that can cause bad breath. Dry mouth is a consequence of the use of various medications, diseases of the salivary glands or constant breathing through the mouth.

Your dentist: Gnashing (bruxism)

Bruxism represents an excessive teeth gnashing or clenching, which is not related to chewing, and is most often an unconscious act. Some people gnash their teeth only during sleep, so this phenomenon is called nocturnal bruxism. This can lead to an exceptionally strong and long-term fatigue of the teeth and their supporting structures. A severe form of bruxism is considered to be responsible for some cases of temporomandibular dysfunction, mysterious morning headaches and unexplained facial pain. Bruxism can have several psychological and physical causes. In many cases, it is associated with stress. It can also be a reaction to anxiety or an improper bite. Sometimes bruxism can appear as a complication of serious brain damage or as a symptom of a rare neuro-muscular disease. Bruxism may also be an uncommon side effect of some antidepressant medications.

Symptoms of bruxism:

The diagnosis will be made by your dentist. He will ask you questions about your current problems, medications you use, alcohol consumption etc... Have any of your family members, especially someone with whom you share a room, noticed unusual grunting sounds during the night... Regarding the clinical examination of the mouth and teeth, it is important to notice tooth damage which includes tooth fractures, demaged gums, damage to the supporting apparatus of the tooth, damage to the mandibular joint... Over time, bruxim can lead to an extremely strong sensitivity of the teeth and pain in the joints, ears and head, which can create great tension for patient.

Prevention of bruxism is achieved by making protective foils (based on the impression of your teeth), the so-called night-guard trays, which you will wear during the night in order to prevent destruction of the teeth and joint pain.

The treatment of bruxism depends on its cause: whether it is stress, dental problems, brain injury or neuro-muscular disease, or whether it is some medication….

Your dentist: Teeth whitening

Teeth whitening is a procedure that acts on the teeth with various "whitening" agents, such as hydrogen peroxide or carbamine peroxide, which removes discolorations from the tooth surface and the tooth color itself becomes whiter.

It is important to know that the natural color of the teeth is affected by the tooth structures. There is enamel on the surface of the tooth, which is transparent. Below it is dentin, a substance that is naturally yellowish, and easily absorbs pigments, so it can change color over time. It is the color of the dentin that actually determines the color of the teeth.

Other factors that can affect tooth color are: different pigments, e.g. from food, excessive intake of fluoride in early childhood, some antibiotics (tetracycline), as well as decayed teeth, old amalgam (black) fillings… However, in these cases the problem cannot be solved by the process of teeth whitening.

There are various teeth whitening techniques:

Transient sensitivity of the teeth to cold, which occurs in 50% of patients, should be mentioned as side effects during teeth whitening. In these cases, the patient is advised to reduce the frequency of wearing the application tray (instead of every other night), reduce the concentration of whitening gel and treat teeth with preparations that reduce tooth sensitivity. This phenomenon is always TRANSIENT, and the case of its retention has not been described in dentistry.

After whitening and stabilization of tooth color (after at least two weeks), all visible fillings should be replaced because their color no longer corresponds to the color of bleached teeth.

Avital teeth, so-called "dead teeth", are those whose nerve has been extracted from the root canal. Over time, such teeth change color and become noticeably darker than the surrounding "living" teeth. The procedure of whitening these teeth lasts for several days, and in most cases it is possible to restore the tooth to its old color and old shine.